[96] However, the increasing military success of the Empire greatly enriched and empowered the provincial nobility with respect to the peasantry, who were essentially reduced to a state of serfdom. [257] The game was introduced to the West by crusaders, who developed a taste for it particularly during the pro-Western reign of emperor Manuel I Komnenos. [69] In 687–688, the final Heraclian emperor, Justinian II, led an expedition against the Slavs and Bulgarians, and made significant gains, although the fact that he had to fight his way from Thrace to Macedonia demonstrates the degree to which Byzantine power in the north Balkans had declined. Robert Guiscard's death in 1085 temporarily eased the Norman problem. With aids such as a glossary, an alternative place-name table and references to … These were not temporary tactical gains but long-term reconquests. The Byzantine Empire, also known as the Eastern Roman Empire, is most famous for being one of the most resilient empires the world has ever seen. Located on the European side of the Bosporus the strait linking the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, the site of Byzantium was ideally located to serve as a transit and trade point between Europe and Asia Minor. Although Agapetus failed in his mission to sign a peace with Justinian, he succeeded in having the Monophysite Patriarch Anthimus I of Constantinople denounced, despite Empress Theodora's support and protection. Most of the 500 ships were destroyed in a day, and it proved the mettle of the Muslims on the seas. The article about Basil II’s sexuality is called ‘Revisiting the Bachelorhood of Basil II’ by Mark Masterson. Tucker, Spencer C. 2011. [25], In 491, Anastasius I, an aged civil officer of Roman origin, became Emperor, but it was not until 497 that the forces of the new emperor effectively took the measure of Isaurian resistance. The "philosopher" Leo of Thessalonika made for the Emperor Theophilos (829–42) a golden tree, the branches of which carried artificial birds which flapped their wings and sang, a model lion which moved and roared, and a bejewelled clockwork lady who walked. [90], Bulgarian resistance revived under the rule of the Cometopuli dynasty, but the new Emperor Basil II (r. 976–1025) made the submission of the Bulgarians his primary goal. Byzantium under the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties, issued a series of edicts essentially banning pagan religion, Byzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty, enactments promulgated by Justinian after 534, Byzantine Empire under the Heraclian dynasty, Byzantine Empire under the Isaurian dynasty, Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty, only diplomacy had been able to push back the invaders, Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty, Byzantine civilisation in the 12th century, Byzantine Empire under the Angelos dynasty, The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Index of Byzantine Empire-related articles, Family trees of the Byzantine imperial dynasties, "The Foundation of the Empire of Trebizond (1204–1222)", "Anonymous, Byzantine sundial-cum-calendar", "John Philoponus, Commentary on Aristotle's Physics, pp", "Boat mills: water powered, floating factories", Troianos & Velissaropoulou-Karakosta 1997, "The Case of Conjoined Twins in 10th Century Byzantium", "The Unspeakable History of Thoracopagus Twins' Separation", "Ecumenical Patriarchate – Byzantine Music", "Medieval Sourcebook: Liutprand of Cremona: Report of his Mission to Constantinople", "War by Other Means: The Legacy of Byzantium", "The Restoration of the Cross at Jerusalem", "East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. 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